THE BOLIVIAN BLACK TYPHUS:MACHUPO VIRUS

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THIS MICROBE AMONG THE TOP TEN MOST DANGEROUS VIRUSES IN THE WORLD

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The social media these days are spreading the  news faster than ever, especially when it comes to the issue of health.The fake information can be shared through the viral channels and people are often lost in the quantity of available sources rather than a quality. That was the destiny of  white P/500 (Aeknil) pills, accused that its  active ingredient paracetamol contains the dangerous Machupo virus. Just as a reminder, the warning that has been circulated via social platforms has brought a pure panic to people because it is well known that Machupo virus is one of the most deadliest,   ranked on the 8th place among top 10 scary bugs.

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The scientists declared those informations as a xoah but people are still in kind of fear, knowing the nature of Machupo virus and its destructive manner. However,there is no rational explanation for the available fake news regarding the Aeknil pills. If there are any proves that Machupo virus is within that drug, we would talk about pharmaceutical biological terrorism.There were no evidence about the negative outcome of the Aeknil drug and particularly not the expected mortality of  Machupo virus taken through the pill per se.Unfortunately, Internet is opened for all types of reports and warnings so the people who share fear and the atmosphere of panic and delusional behaviour.The Machupo virus is a severe pathogen and has another background, far away from the availability in paracetamol.

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Dr. Karl Johnson is a virologist of CDC who discovered the Machupo virus back in 1962, when he visited Bolivia, as the part of The Middle America Research Unit in Panama. The famous virologist went to Bolivian villages based on invitation of his fellow scientist,Ron MacKenzie. Something strange has happened there and Bolivian Government needed a help from the outside to sort out the unknown disease in Magdalena. The both doctors had typical research curiosity and they immediately have visited the local hospitals, facing up with the patients in deep suffering and followed by symptoms of a hemorrhagic fever. According to notes from the Stanford University, the scientists have been back to the USA, to gather a special emerging team for the work on the ground with the unknown pathogen:“A new team of researchers was sent in March of 1963. It included Merl Kuns of the University of Wisconsin-Madison. He was selected as the ecologist to accompany Ron MacKenzie. They concluded that the outbreak was more severe than expected and determined that the location of the outbreak was actually in San Jouquin. In May of 1963, Karl Johnson and new experimental equipment joined the team in San Jouquin. The new equipment consisted of a coffin size glass box that cycled air out through filters and had a set of latex gloves built in. The boxes stored mutant immunodeficient mice used for quickly testing viruses. This assembly would be sized down and improved to become the future of studying dangerous viruses.”

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Dr. MacKenzie and Dr. Johnson have been both infected by the unidentified virus and sent back to the urgent treatment for the exposure  to the Hantaan virus. It was almost like a medical support and care, through the electrolyte and vitamins so the both researches have been recovered, convinced that they are now immune on the new dangerous virus from the Bolivian jungles. They went back to the Bolivian targeted village, trying to discover the reservoir of the virus and the chain of occured transmission. The virus has been found in the food and the host was the domestic mouse that has occupied the majority of homes, infecting the food supplies with own urine or saliva. During the expansion of people agriculture and deforestation, the human habitat is crossing the line of the wildlife habitat and wild animals are attracted now to search for a food within the people’s environment, often bringing them new and emerging dangerous microbes. That is the direct link between the human progress and new outbreaks.

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In the first period,between 1959 and 1965,  there were about 470 people infected with Machupo and 192 of them were dead. Later, the second phase started in 1994, also in Magdalena, when the Dr. Kuns finally convinced others that the Machupo is more dangerous and viral as it is concluded in the previous stage. It has been named as Bolivian Hemorrhagic Fever and the virus is the member of the Genus Arenavirus and Family Arenaviridae, single stranded negative sense RNA. The genome therapy has researched for years the possibilities to block the multiplication of the virus and it is finally defeated by antiviral drug,  ribavirin. Only if the treatment begins on time. Its mortality goes to 30% and it can be worse if the right diagnosis is missed.

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The virus also known as an indicator of the viral illness  Ordog Fever, demands the highest Biosafety level, the level IV, the same what is obligated for the Ebola and Marburg virus. It is an airborne  infection but the cases from person-to-person transmission are very rare. The primary way of the outbreaks starts with the rodents who bring the virus close to the people and contaminate the food or water reservoirs with the deadly microbe.The incubation period lasts from one to two weeks.  The disease has typical ongoing set of symptoms, involving:fever, malaise, headache and body pain, blood spots, bleeding from the nose and gums( very similar to Ebola and Marburg too) and overall weakness,loss of appetite and vomiting, flushed face and dehydration, kidney problems, reduced blood pressure and decreased heart race, alopecia, delirium and neurological shock.

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This virus has jumped out from the zoonotic areas, bringing destruction and chaos. The typical outcome of cruel deforestation and demolition of nature and its own balance. The people are going deeper to the jungles, they break the rules and start a war with the nature and it send them back the army with no mercy, different sort of dangerous viruses. They all look familiar to each other but each of them is unique in killing process. That s why is setting up the right diagnosis one of the most demanding tasks for the real expert. The one solution for this virus to be stopped is to make the borders between human zone and jungle zone. The second one is to control the population of the local rodents through the increase of cat population which will be able to keep Machupo hosts away from the human beings. In both cases, the greedy appetite must be limited or the Machupo will come back to us stronger and angrier.

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In the previous period of active bioweapons industry and research, the weaponization of this black typhus has been interesting to the Americans and the Russians.Nowadays, it seems that officially is out of any war  interests  but still the challenge to the virologists and population possibly endangered by this secret hunter from the Bolivian jungle.

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5 thoughts on “THE BOLIVIAN BLACK TYPHUS:MACHUPO VIRUS”

  1. Thank you so much, Sarah, for yet another adventure in the jungles of South America through your well-presented and beautifully written article !

    I found this part in your article extremely interesting, as it relates to some of the established points in your prior articles The virus has been found in the food and the host was the domestic mouse that has occupied the majority of homes, infecting the food supplies with own urine or saliva. During the expansion of people agriculture and deforestation, the human habitat is crossing the line of the wildlife habitat and wild animals are attracted now to search for a food within the people’s environment, often bringing them new and emerging dangerous microbes. That is the direct link between the human progress and new outbreaks.

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  2. Thank you so much, Sarah, for yet another adventure in the jungles of South America through your well-presented and beautifully-written article !

    I found this part in your article extremely interesting, as it relates to some of the established points in your prior articles, namely, Rabies-Fatal Virus with enigmatic natures, October 13, 2016, Monkey Pox Outbreak : The nightmare starts when we are awake, November 2, 2016, Hantavirus: Infected Rodents bring fatal disease, January 22, 2017, Brazil in torment: Yellow Fever Outbreak, January 28, 2017, and The Dark Rainforest: Factory of Deadly Viruses? February 5, 2017.

    “The virus has been found in the food and the host was the domestic mouse that has occupied the majority of homes, infecting the food supplies with own urine or saliva. During the expansion of people agriculture and deforestation, the human habitat is crossing the line of the wildlife habitat and wild animals are attracted now to search for a food within the people’s environment, often bringing them new and emerging dangerous microbes. That is the direct link between the human progress and new outbreaks.”

    The common thread among your prior articles, as they relate to certain viruses or microbes, is the fact that in all cases this is because of human interference and tampering with nature and its intended successful ecosystems !

    The good news, for now, is that there is a treatment for the Marchupo virus when diagnosed early, however, if “humans ” don’t stop interfering with the existing ecosystems, they will find themselves on an irreversible path of self-destruction !

    Thank you, Sarah, for your informative article ! We learn something new from each and every one of your articles !

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  3. Sarah’s article brought to mind Biopreparat (Russian, Биопрепарат, Biological substance preparation); the former Soviet Union’s major biological warfare agency from the 1970s onwards. It was a vast network of secret laboratories; each of which focused on a different deadly bioagent. Its 30,000 employees researched and produced pathogenic weapons for use in a major war.

    Since 1991, several large bioweapons production lines have been officially closed. Its current state is unknown. However, it is likely that Biopreparat and successor entities continued bioweapons Research and Development (R & D) at least through the 1990s.

    Biopreparat was a system of 18 research laboratories and centres scattered chiefly around European Russia, in which scientists and technicians developed biological weapons; such as anthrax, Ebola, Marburg virus, plague, Q fever, Junin virus, glanders and smallpox. It was the largest producer of weaponized anthrax in The Soviet Union and was a leader in the development of new bioweapons technologies.

    In 2013, the US-government acknowledged that it was constructing a bioweapons laboratory in Kazakhstan (a former Soviet state). Many of the former Soviet scientists who worked on biological weapons R & D immigrated to North America and others became employed by Occidental companies operating in former Soviet states.

    Bolivian hemorrhagic fever was one of three hemorrhagic fevers and one of more than a dozen agents that the US-government researched as potential biological weapons, before the suspension of its biological weapons programme. It was under research by The Soviet Union, under the Biopreparat bureau, also.

    According to Ken Alibek, who was Deputy-Director of Biopreparat (who defected to the USA in 1992) weapons were developed in labs in isolated areas of The Soviet Union. These weapons were tested at several facilities most often at Rebirth Island (Vozrozhdeniya) in The Aral Sea, by firing the weapons into the air above monkeys tied to posts, the monkeys would then be monitored to determine the effects. According to Alibek (though the Soviet offensive programme was officially ended in 1992) Russia may be still involved in the activities prohibited by The International Biological Weapons Convention…

    Compliance with the agreement, as well as the fate of the former Soviet bio-agents and facilities, is still mostly undocumented. In The Soviet Biological Weapons Program: A History (2012), it is stated that ‘In March 1992…Yeltsin acknowledged the existence of an illegal BW programme in the former Soviet Union and ordered it to be dissolved. His decree was not obeyed. In hindsight, we know that with the ultimate failure of the… [negotiations] process and the continued Russian refusal to open the facilities to the present day, neither the Yeltsin or Putin administrations ever carried out ‘a visible campaign to dismantle once and for all’ the residual elements of the Soviet BW programme.’

    Between 2000-2009, the academician known as ‘A.S’ proposed a new biological warfare programme for Russia, called ‘The Biological Shield of Russia’, to president Vladimir Putin. The programme includes institutes of the Russian Academy of Sciences from Pushchino; one of Russia’s most secret scientific centres.

    In recent years, certain scientific critics have claimed the US-government’s stance on biological warfare and the use of biological agents has differed from historical interpretations of the BWC. For example, it is said that the US-government now maintains that the Article I of the BWC (which explicitly bans bio-weapons), does not apply to ‘non-lethal’ biological agents. Previous interpretation was stated to be in line with a definition laid out in Public Law 101-298, the Biological Weapons Anti-Terrorism Act of 1989. That law defined a biological agent as: ‘any micro-organism, virus, infectious substance, or biological product that may be engineered as a result of biotechnology, or any naturally occurring or bio-engineered component of any such microorganism, virus, infectious substance, or biological product, capable of causing death, disease, or other biological malfunction in a human, an animal, a plant, or another living organism; deterioration of food, water, equipment, supplies, or material of any kind…’

    According to The Federation of American Scientists, US-government work on non-lethal agents exceeds limitations in the BWC…

    Sarah’s article ends with ambiguity: both the elite of Russia and The United States of America have vested interests in sustaining clandestine biological weapons R & D. However, as the belligerents of World War I learnt through the unpredictability of Mustard Gas (often, it ended up killing their own soldiers when the wind changed direction), biological warfare is an extremely fragile and unpredictable sphere of application…

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  4. I WAS CURED FROM MACHUPO VIRUS WITH NATURAL HERBS AND ROOTS BY DR.OBOH

    I really happy that i and my wife are
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    .

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  5. DR INEGBENOSE CURE ME OF MACHUPO VIRUS:

    Am so happy to share my testimony, i am really happy that i have been cured from ( Machupo Virus) with the herbal medicine of Dr INEGBENOSE,after moving from one hospital to another in USA non could cure me.. I have been suffering from this disease for the past 1 years without solution until i came across the email of this doctor who have cure so many people with his herbal medicine, i also choose to give him a chance to help me, he told me what to do and i kindly did it, and he gave me his herbal medicine and direct me on how to use it, i also follow his instructions for use and he ask us to go for a check up after 1 week and 4 days which i did, to my greatest surprise my result came out as negative, i am really happy……. that there is someone like Dr INEGBENOSE who is ready to help anytime any day. To all the readers and viewers that is doubting this testimony stop doubting it and contact this doctor if you really have one and see if he will not actually help you. i am not a stupid woman that i will come out to the public and start saying what someone have not done for me and i know that there are some people out there who are really suffering and hurting their family just because of these diseases here is his contact email:drinegbenoseherbalhome@gmail.com or call +2347036842735

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